A McKinsey analysis highlighted 5 key areas in which savings could be made. The first of these promoted savings through more efficient design (3D, BIM, etc.), to better showcase build projects. The second encouraged healthier collaboration during the construction phase - across project management, documentation, and so forth. The third area focussed on the operational phase of structures; while the average construction project lasts around 1 to 3 years, the operational phase, within which the structure is useful, lasts for 30 to 50, or even 100, years. Imagine the potential gain during lifespans such as these, if the health of structures were better monitored. The final 2 areas highlighted were innovation in the construction process, such as the increasingly popular 3D printing, and the use of new materials.